Everyware: The Icebreaker

Presentation Link: https://prezi.com/view/cvW3ewB4za09OKP7Hktq/

The Icebreaker T-shirt is a unique tool for connecting people. It is designed for use in conventions, open days, and other large social events. Plymouth University alone has approximately 23,000 students, with many of these students attending open days and freshers fairs. (University of Plymouth, 2018) With the phrase “It’s not what you know but who you know” being more true than ever; it is vital to grow your social circle and create opportunities for both now and the future.

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Icebreaker mobile app

The Icebreaker mobile app accompanies the T-shirt, allowing users to input their login details as well as add in their hobbies and interests to match upon. The app is simple, allowing you to input your details and go, so your attention is always in the moment, rather than at your phone.

Watch our promotional video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xVB_mYe-LQw

The interactive T-shirt makes the immaterial concept of shared interests and brings them to life in a visual way. When you meet someone you have similar interests to, your shirt will light up, telling you exactly who you have matched with and what interests you match on. The accompanying app tells you exactly how close the person you matched with is, so you never miss an opportunity to meet someone.

T-shirt designs

Icebreaker Tshirt designs

The Icebreaker T-shirt allows wearers to expand their social circle and meet new people – Perfect for university freshers fairs and open days.

Security features

Don’t want to match with anyone? Only want to match with people of a similar age? Don’t want to share your location? No problem. With the Icebreaker mobile app, you can choose from a range of privacy options.

Future updates include:

  • Personalisation: Customisation of colours and lighting effects based on preferences in the mobile app.
  • More Matches: A more extensive list of hobbies and interests to choose from.
  • Washable: Switching to washable conductive threads & removable LED panels, allowing the T-shirt to be reused

References

University of Plymouth. (2018). Facts and figures. [online] Available at: https://www.plymouth.ac.uk/your-university/about-us/facts-and-figures [Accessed 19 Jan. 2018].

 

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Everyware: MQTT matches & Lighting effects

Gerrit redesigned the T-shirt from the original polar bear design to a design which will help alert users to which interests they matched on, as seen below. This will match the size of the LED ring once it is fitted onto the T-shirt, allowing a quick visual reference to which interests or hobbies the wearers have matched on.

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Gerrit’s T-shirt design, made to accommodate the LED ring within the design

Since my part of the project includes handling the physical prototyping with NodeMCU, I had to change my code to work with this design.

Creating Lighting Effects – Neopixel 24

The new T-shirt design incorporates a thirds system to allow users to identify which interests they matched on.

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For single matches, only specific parts of the board will light up.

I changed my code to accommodate this thirds system – I split the LED ring up into thirds relating to which match was made. Since the Neopixel Library allows you to set individual LED colours based on their number, it is possible to count around the ring between specific numbers.

Although the LED ring will need to be ‘reset’ to off between animations, the left/right match code can otherwise stay the same.

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Basic match with direction

This visual code works not only for the wearer but for other wearers too – It acts as a quick visual reference to allow you to instantly see who you matched with!

I also made my own functions for lighting effects such as breathe effects and directional matches. The breathe effect cycles through brightness as a percentage (in a similar way to setting the brightness in the code setup). Whilst this works, it does require perfect timing on delays, as if you miss the timing the LED ring will not go back to full brightness. Percentages should also be used as to not overwrite the initially set brightness of the LED ring (to avoid it turning down to ‘0’ brightness and staying there!)

Final Lighting Effects

I modified my code to show more interesting lighting effects and fix some issues that I previously came across.

One of the main issues I noticed was that when a match was made, if the ‘background’ was left as the default blue the matches were not as easy to notice (for example, if two matches were made, the last third would stay blue, so it could  be interpreted as 3 matches instead of 2). I combated this my programming the LEDs to switch off after matches and between directional animations. This also has the added bonus of being more eye-catching to both users and viewers!

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Double match with direction effects

Matches count across one third of the ring (always in sequence, so the motion is a constant clockwise direction for a smoother appearance) If there are multiple matches, this will count across all of the thirds in sequence (as seen above). Once it has finished counting round, the ring lighting will “Breathe” for one cycle.

After this, the directional lighting will begin. This lights up half of the ring white and green. The effect means that the ring will appear to light up white with a green “arrow” moving towards the center in whichever direction the match is. To achieve this, I programmed the LEDs individually to delay the change in colour. This animation will run for 4 cycles.

Handling Multiple devices across MQTT

In order to keep it efficient, each board takes a unique ID and then an instruction, then a direction. for example “1” for board 1, followed by “1” for match one and “2” for match right. at the same time, board 2 would receive “2” followed by match “1” and “1” for match left.

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MySQL database, where the interests are stored

When this is hooked up to Glenn’s MySQL and Node-Red code, these sets of instructions are sent to the relevant T-shirts when a match is made within a certain location. This location is worked out using the Google Maps API (also used to determine the Left/Right directional matches).

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2 LED rings matching on all 3 interests. Note the motioning towards each other. (Delay due to internet!)

 

Everyware: Research & Social impact

Almost a quarter of the world’s population are on Facebook (Gaitho, 2017) Whilst it may be argued that social media websites like Facebook encourages social interaction, the opposite is actually true.

Research shows that social media is actually making us less social. people who use 3 or more social media platforms will, on average, only socialise once a month. (Adams, 2017)

Social media use also shapes our personality. Before the age of Facebook, if you moved away from friends or family, you would simply move on and keep contact via email or letter, a slow process. Because of this, you would be more encouraged to meet new people within the area and expand your social circle. Facebook changes this by making users keep contact with old friends or family, inhibiting social growth. (della Cava, 2014)

Social impact

The Icebreaker T-shirt will encourage users to step away from their mobile devices and interact with new people. Users will input their data into the app & go, taking their attention away from their phone and into the conversation.

The Tshirt will also encourage users to expand their social circle, breaking away the chains of social media and allowing them to grow and move on.


References

Adams, S. (2017). Fears social media could actually be making people unsociable. [online] mirror. Available at: https://www.mirror.co.uk/tech/social-media-making-you-unsociable-10490787 [Accessed 19 Dec. 2017].

della Cava, M. (2014). How Facebook changed our lives. [online] USA TODAY. Available at: https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2014/02/02/facebook-turns-10-cultural-impact/5063979/ [Accessed 19 Dec. 2017].

Gaitho, M. (2017). What is the real impact of social media?. [online] Simplilearn.com. Available at: https://www.simplilearn.com/real-impact-social-media-article [Accessed 19 Dec. 2017].

Everyware: Icebreaker development – LEDs & MQTT

In this post I will briefly outline my part in the creation of our wearable technology: The Icebreaker T-Shirt.

My responsibilities included creating the physical prototypes: Using the NodeMCU and MQTT connections to build a wearable system.

Prototyping: Single RGB LED

I started off by prototyping MQTT connections with a single RGB LED. I built a basic circuit and programmed it so that it would connect to the MQTT broker, and light up when data is received.

This was a very basic prototype to test MQTT connections and reactions, to see what is possible across MQTT communications and how messages are both sent and received.

During this time, I ran into many internet connectivity issues with the NodeMCU board – Whilst it does work, it often needs resetting as the connection is prone to drop out after running for a while. This is a known limitation of the board and a workaround should  be found for the finished product.

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NodeMCU wired up to the RGB LED for testing messages sent across the MQTT i-dat broker.

RGBW LED Strips

After this, we experimented with using RGBW LED strips. I wired up a circuit (using transistors to prevent burning out my controller board) and experimented with some code to create patterns and colour combinations.

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Testing the RGB LED strip

In addition to issues with powering these strips from the NodeMCU board without external power sources, it was apparent these strips were not composed of individually addressable LEDs, so turned out to not be appropriate for our usage. It would also be difficult to fit these LED strips around a T-shirt design without cutting them in multiple places and soldering many wires to bridge the gaps, resulting in a messy and impractical finish.

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Wiring up the RGBW LED strip with multiple transistors – one for each colour & white.

 

24 RGB LED Ring

Next we moved onto using an Adafruit Neopixel 24 LED ring. First, I soldered some header pins into the ring for easy wiring. Later these could be removed and either directly soldered onto, or even potentially be connected to using conductive thread.

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24 LED ring with sample code.

I worked out how to individually address each LED to both change the colour and brightness, and then used the code from the first single RGB LED (shown above) to connect it to the MQTT broker.

After this, I setup basic reactions to each input to simulate what will happen once the database is properly connected; such as changing the colours when a match is detected.

Basic lighting effects/reactions i initially created include:

  • Ambient (No match/resting)
  • Match (Different colours for different matches) – Currently 3 max
  • Left – Left side lights up
  • Right – Right side lights up
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Wiring up my NodeMCU board to the LED ring. The circuit requires the use of capacitors to prevent damage to the LED ring and resistors on the data inputs. (Tape shown over LEDs is for diffusing)

The next steps are to create more visually appealing lighting effects & reactions (which I will work on over the next week) and to hook it up to the database via MQTT, which is being handled by my other team members.


 

Links

Adafruit Neopixel/Library: https://learn.adafruit.com/adafruit-neopixel-uberguide?view=all

 

Everyware: Design documents

Below are a few of my sketches of designs for the Icebreaker T-shirt, inspired by my previous research into how the shirt could be designed and made into a reality.

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Multiple T-shirt designs, taking into account form as well as function.

Some of my designs included networks of singular RGB LEDs, as well as strips, panels and rings. I also considered using electroluminescent (EL) wire, as I have previous experience of using this.

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Peel-off flexible LED panel design, to maximise comfort and make it washable!

I also considered fitting the circuitry into an inner pocket within the T-shirt, which could be removed for washing. This would be connected using clips and conductive thread, maximizing the re-usability.

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Framework for matches across database with NodeMCU

 

 

Everyware: Developing wearable technologies

Since I am responsible for designing and building many of the back-end technologies, I looked into how we can not only make the shirt a reality, but also maximize its re-usability.

We considered using technologies such as:

  • Lilypad arduino – a dedicated tool for wearable technologies, the Lilypad will be used to power & control the T-shirt functions.
  • Conductive thread – For connections between Lilypad/LEDs/Sensors, more robust and dedicated for the task (compared to soldering wires, which may snap under stress!)
  • RGB LEDs and LED strips – For creating lighting & light patterns within the T shirt. If strips are used, the LEDs within them need to be individually addressable.
  • Bluetooth or GPS – For tracking proximity to other T-shirts in the area and transmitting data between them.

If we decide to use the Lilypad Arduino over the NodeMCU board, we will have to consider other problems, such as internet connectivity.


Using conductive thread

The best conductive thread for machine or hand sewing is silver plated fiber. It has good sew-ability and a clean finish, and is less likely to get stuck in thread take-up of a sewing machine, unlike stainless steel fibers. For machine sewing, a “z-twist” direction should be used. For hand stitching, however, either type can be used. (Instructables.com, 2017)

To avoid shorts in conductive thread, power and ground lines should be kept a good distance apart. During stitching, fabric should be kept taut and flat . All thread should be tested with a multimeter prior to use. (Stern, 2017)


Waterproofing and wash-ability

Since we are making wearable technologies, we have extra points to consider, such as durability & the ability to wash it.

Washing LED T-shirts
Shirts that have an LED panel should be hand-washed only, to prevent cracking the panel. Battery packs and other water-sensitive parts should be removed prior to washing. Many of these shirts have an interior pocket that allows the wearer to remove the battery pack. (Flashion Statement, 2017)

Shirts that have non-removable electronics are generally dry clean only. (Christmasjumpercompany.co.uk, 2017)

Conductive Thread & Washing

Silver plated fibers are not as suitable for washing as oxidation can occur, however stainless steel fibers can be washed without risk. (Instructables.com, 2017)

The thread has to be dried thoroughly to reduce the risks of shorting (particularly for plated fiber kinds of thread, which may stay damp inside). (Stern, 2017)


Sources:

Flashion Statement. (2017). Washing Instructions – Flashion Statement. [online] Available at: https://www.flashionstatement.com/light-up-t-shirts/washing-instructions/ [Accessed 19 Nov. 2017].

Christmasjumpercompany.co.uk. (2017). Product Care Instructions for your purchase – Christmas Jumper Company 2017. [online] Available at: http://www.christmasjumpercompany.co.uk/care-instructions/4586923675 [Accessed 19 Nov. 2017].

Instructables.com. (2017). Selection Guide of Conductive Thread for Machine Sewing. [online] Available at: http://www.instructables.com/id/Selection-Guide-of-Conductive-Thread-for-Machine-S/ [Accessed 19 Nov. 2017].

Stern, B. (2017). Overview | Conductive Thread | Adafruit Learning System. [online] Learn.adafruit.com. Available at: https://learn.adafruit.com/conductive-thread/overview [Accessed 19 Nov. 2017].

Stern, B. (2017). Preventing short circuits | Conductive Thread | Adafruit Learning System. [online] Learn.adafruit.com. Available at: https://learn.adafruit.com/conductive-thread/preventing-short-circuits [Accessed 19 Nov. 2017].

 

 

Everyware: AI & Emotional Scoring

In order to test the technologies we plan on using for this project, I built a small prototype. This prototype is a reflection of what we plan to make for our final outcome, but on a smaller scale.

Since I am responsible for designing how the NodeMCU prototyping will work (and later developing it), I put a lot of work into designing how the software will work before developing it:

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Early design of how the MQTT connection will work in conjunction with IBM Watson’s tone analyser

The technologies I used were: Amica NodeMCU board, RGB LED, MQTT & IBM Watson services (speech to text & Tone analysis).

How it works

Everyware prototype (1).png

A voice input is taken via an app. The speech input is converted to text using IBM Watson’s Speech-to-text service. This text is then inputted into IBM Watson’s tone analyser, which feeds back an emotional ID (Such as Happy, Sad, Angry .etc) and a percentage score.

This emotional ID/Score data is then then processed in Javascript/Node Red, and published across the MQTT broker on a specific channel.

The NodeMCU board is subscribed to the same channel, and recieves the processed data. This is then used to determine which colour to make the RGB LED it is connected to.

Physical Prototype

I built the basic speech to text app using phonegap, as it is an ideal solution for rapidly protoyping apps that will work on a wide range of mobile devices. It also has dedicated libraries for MQTT connections.

I programmed the NodeMCU board to receive the data from the MQTT and use that to determine what colour to make the RGB LED. Since the tone ID & score were simplified into integers earlier, all it has to do is take the returned number and use it to control the colour and brightness, such as turning it blue for sadness, and making it brighter for a high percentage.

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NodeMCU with RGB LED

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RGB LED turns red when Watson’s Tone analyser detects Anger

Art & the Internet of Things

Immaterials
By Timo Arnall, Einar Sneve Martinussen & Jack Schulze

Immaterials is a collection of pieces centered around the increasing use of ‘invisible interfaces’ such as WiFi and mobile networks, and the impact they have on us. (Arnall, 2013)

Immaterials: Light Painting & WiFi explores the scale of WiFi networks in urban spaces, and translates signal strength into unique light paintings.

Immaterials: Light painting WiFi  (Arnall, 2011)

Immaterials also utilises a series of satellite sensitive lamps that change light intensity according to the strength of GPS signals reveived. (Arnall, 2013)


The Nemesis Machine
By Stanza

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The Nemesis Machine in exhibition (Stanza, n.d.)

The Nemesis Machine is a travelling installation artwork. It uses a combination of Digital Cities and IOT technology. It visualises life in the city based off real time data from wireless sensors, representing the complexities of cities and city life. (Stanza.co.uk, n.d.)


ExTouch
By Shunichi Kasahara, Ryuma Niiyama, Valentin Heun & Hiroshi Ishii

Incorporates touchscreen interactions into the real world. Users can touch objects shown in live video; dragging them across the screen and across physical space. (Kasahara et al., 2012)


exTouch in action (exTouch, 2013)


T(ether)
By Dávid Lakatos, Matthew Blackshaw, Alex Olwal, Zachary Barryte, Ken Perlin & Hiroshi Ishii

T(ether) is a platform for gestural interaction with objects in digital 3D space, with a handheld device acting as a window into virtual space. T(ether) has potential as a platform for 3D modelling and animation. (Lakatos et al., 2012)


Sources

IMMATERIALS

Arnall, T. (2013). The Immaterials Project. [online] Elastic Space. Available at: http://www.elasticspace.com/2013/09/the-immaterials-project [Accessed 1 Nov. 2017].

Arnall, T. (2011). Immaterials: Light Painting WiFi. [Video] Available at: https://vimeo.com/20412632 [Accessed 1 Nov. 2017].

NEMESIS MACHINE

Stanza (n.d.). The Nemesis Machine Installation. [image] Available at: http://www.stanza.co.uk/nemesis-machineweb/index.html [Accessed 1 Nov. 2017].

Stanza.co.uk. (n.d.). The Nemesis Machine – From Metropolis to Megalopolis to Ecumenopolis. A real time interpretation of the data of the environment using sensors.. [online] Available at: http://www.stanza.co.uk/nemesis-machineweb/index.html [Accessed 1 Nov. 2017].

EXTOUCH

Kasahara, S., Niiyama, R., Heun, V. and Ishii, H. (2012). exTouch. [online] Tangible.media.mit.edu. Available at: http://tangible.media.mit.edu/project/extouch/ [Accessed 1 Nov. 2017].

exTouch. (2013). [Video] MIT Media Lab: MIT Media Lab. Available at: https://vimeo.com/57514726 [Accessed 1 Nov. 2017].

T(ETHER)

Lakatos, D., Blackshaw, M., Olwal, A., Barryte, Z., Perlin, K. and Ishii, H. (2012). T(ether). [online] Tangible.media.mit.edu. Available at: http://tangible.media.mit.edu/project/tether/ [Accessed 1 Nov. 2017].

Everyware/Netscapes: Internet Art

eCLOUD
By Aaron Koblin, Nik Hafermaas & Dan Goods

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eCLOUD installation & display (Koblin, n.d.)

eCLOUD is an installation piece consisting of polycarbonate tiles that fade between being opaque and transparent based on real-time weather data. It has an accompanying display placed at eye level. The piece is permanently housed at San Jose International Airport. (Postscapes.com, n.d.)


Thaw
By Sand-won Leigh, Philipp Schoessler, Felix Heibeck, Pattie Maes, Hiroshi Ishii

THAW: Hybrid Interactions with Phones on Computer Screens from Tangible Media Group (MIT Tangible Media Group, 2014)

 

Thaw is an interaction system that bridges the gap between a handheld device and a large display. The handheld device is used as a means to manipulate objects on the display. Position tracking is achieved by using the smartphone’s back facing camera. (Leigh et al., 2012)


Sources:

ECLOUD

Koblin, A. (n.d.). eCLOUD installation & display. [image] Available at: http://www.aaronkoblin.com/project/ecloud/ [Accessed 1 Nov. 2017].

Postscapes.com. (n.d.). IoT Art – Real Time Networked Art Installations. [online] Available at: https://www.postscapes.com/networked-art-10-projects-using-real-time-data/ [Accessed 1 Nov. 2017].

THAW

MIT Tangible Media Group (2014). THAW: Hybrid Interactions with Phones and Computer Screens. Available at: https://vimeo.com/105950126 [Accessed 1 Nov. 2017].

Leigh, S., Schoessler, P., Heibeck, F., Maes, P. and Ishii, H. (2012). THAW. [online] Tangible.media.mit.edu. Available at: http://tangible.media.mit.edu/project/thaw/ [Accessed 1 Nov. 2017].

Everyware: The Matter of the Immaterial

The brief for “Everyware” is entitled “The Matter of the Immaterial”, and is focused around ubiquitous computing and making the intangible tangible. I took this idea and used it as a starting point for some research into what is already available.


Inspirations:

Ultrahaptics

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Ultrahaptics development kit (Ultrahaptics, 2015)

Ultrahaptics is a startup company focused on making the virtual world physical. Using an array of ultrasonic projectors and hand tracking, users can feel & interact with virtual environments, as well as feel real tactile feedback without the need for wearing or holding special equipment. (Ultrahaptics, 2017) Read more on my other blog post.

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Ultrahaptics Diagram  (Ultrahaptics, 2015)

Ultrahaptics follows a similar concept to the Geomagic Touch X 3D pen (Previously known as Sensable Phantom Desktop), which I have used!


DaisyPi

DaisyPi

DaisyPi system (DaisyPi, 2017)

The Daisy Pi is a Raspberry Pi powered home monitoring system. It is fitted with multiple sensors including temperature, light intensity and humidity. It is also capable of capturing audio and video feeds, which can be accessed remotely by devices such as mobile phones or tablets. (Lopez, 2017)


Moon 

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Moon up close (Designboom, 2014)

Moon is an interactive installation piece created by Olafur Eliasson and Ai Weiwei. It invites viewers from around the globe to draw and explore a digital “Moonscape”. (Feinstein, 2014)

Eliasson and Weiwei’s work is focused around community and the link between the online and offline world. (Austen, 2013)

Over the course of its 4 years of existence, Moon grew from simple doodles and drawings, to collaborations & clusters of work, such as the “Moon Elisa”, where multiple users came together to recreate the classic Mona Lisa painting. (Cembalest, 2013)

“The moon is interesting because it’s a not yet habitable space so it’s a fantastic place to put your dreams.” – Olafur Eliasson, on Moon (Feinstein, 2014)


Illuminating Clay

Illuminating Clay is a platform for exploring 3D spatial models. Users can manipulate the clay into different shapes (even adding other objects), and using a laser scanner and projector, a height map is projected back onto the surface. It can also be used to work out data such as travel times and land erosion.  (Piper et al., 2002)


Physical Telepresence

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Interaction through Physical Telepresence (Vice, 2015)

Physical Telepresence is a work created by students at MIT, based around shared workspaces and remote manipulation of physical objects. (Leithinger et al., 2014) The work consists of a pin-based surface that can be used to interact with physical objects. (Pick, 2015)


Near Field Creatures

Near Field Creatures is a game made by students as a part of the mubaloo annual appathon at Bristol Uni. Users scan NFC tags (such as in certain student cards) and collect different animals of differing values. These collected animals can then be used to compete with other users. (Mubaloo, 2015)

Pico
Pico is an interactive work that explores human-computer interaction, allowing people and computers to collaborate in physical space. Pico is interacted with by use of pucks, which can be used by both the computer and the user. (Patten, Alonso and Ishii, 2005)

PICO 2006 from Tangible Media Group on Vimeo. (Pico 2006, 2012)

 


Sources:

ULTRAHAPTICS

Ultrahaptics (2015). Ultrahaptics Development Kit. [image] Available at: http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/ultrahaptics-bringing-sensation-touch-virtual-reality-1489289 [Accessed 28 Oct. 2017].

Ultrahaptics. (2017). Ultrahaptics – A remarkable connection with technology. [online] Available at: https://www.ultrahaptics.com/ [Accessed 28 Oct. 2017].

Ultrahaptics (2015). Ultrahaptics diagram. [image] Available at: http://electronics360.globalspec.com/article/5907/touch-control-with-feeling [Accessed 28 Oct. 2017].

DAISYPI

DaisyPi (2017). Daisy Pi Unit. [image] Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/howtoweb/valerian-banu [Accessed 28 Oct. 2017].

Lopez, A. (2017). Daisy Pi | The home monitoring e-flower. [online] Daisypi.ro. Available at: http://daisypi.ro/ [Accessed 28 Oct. 2017].

MOON

Designboom (2014). Moon close up. [image] Available at: https://www.designboom.com/art/ai-weiwei-olafur-eliasson-give-rise-to-moon-interactive-artwork-11-26-2013/ [Accessed 30 Oct. 2017].

Feinstein, L. (2014). Make Your Mark On The Moon With Olafur Eliasson and Ai Weiwei. [online] Creators. Available at: https://creators.vice.com/en_uk/article/yp5zkj/make-your-mark-on-the-moon-with-olafur-eliasson-and-ai-weiwei [Accessed 30 Oct. 2017].

Cembalest, R. (2013). How Ai Weiwei and Olafur Eliasson Got 35,000 People to Draw on the Moon | ARTnews. [online] ARTnews. Available at: http://www.artnews.com/2013/12/19/how-ai-weiwei-and-olafur-eliasson-got-35000-people-to-draw-on-the-moon/ [Accessed 30 Oct. 2017].

Austen, K. (2013). Drawing on a moon brings out people’s best and worst. [online] New Scientist. Available at: https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn24702-drawing-on-a-moon-brings-out-peoples-best-and-worst/ [Accessed 30 Oct. 2017].

ILLUMINATING CLAY

Piper, B., Ratti, C., Wang, Y., Zhu, B., Getzoyan, S. and Ishii, H. (2002). Illuminating Clay. [online] Tangible.media.mit.edu. Available at: http://tangible.media.mit.edu/project/illuminating-clay/ [Accessed 30 Oct. 2017].

PHYSICAL TELEPRESENCE

Vice (2015). Interaction with Physical Telepresence. [image] Available at: https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/ae3598/watch-a-robotic-floor-play-with-blocks [Accessed 30 Oct. 2017].

Leithinger, D., Follmer, S., Olwal, A. and Ishii, H. (2014). Physical Telepresence. [online] Tangible.media.mit.edu. Available at: http://tangible.media.mit.edu/project/physical-telepresence/ [Accessed 30 Oct. 2017].

Pick, R. (2015). Watch a Robotic Floor Play with Blocks. [online] Motherboard. Available at: https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/ae3598/watch-a-robotic-floor-play-with-blocks [Accessed 30 Oct. 2017].

NFC CREATURES

Mubaloo. (2015). Mubaloo and Bristol University hold third annual Appathon. [online] Available at: http://mubaloo.com/mubaloo-bristol-university-hold-third-annual-appathon/ [Accessed 28 Oct. 2017].

PICO

Patten, J., Alonso, J. and Ishii, H. (2005). PICO. [online] Tangible.media.mit.edu. Available at: http://tangible.media.mit.edu/project/pico/ [Accessed 30 Oct. 2017].

Pico 2006. (2012). MIT: MIT Tangible Media Group. Available at: https://vimeo.com/44539342